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Okunmamış 04-11-2008, 01:10 PM   #1
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Post History of Body Piercing, Piercing tarihi,piercing çeşitleri

The history of contemporary body piercing



Body piercing is ancient and according to Ted Polhemus "arguably the most widespread of all the permanent (semi-permanent) body arts" (Polhemus 1996). The names and origins of all the types of piercings now practised is a subject covered in more depth in other publications such as Eye of the Needle or Modern Primitives. However, it is worth noting some facts to provide background.


Piercing is known to have been practised by the Romans, who used nipple piercings as a sign of bravery and functionally as a means of attaching cloaks. The Karma Sutra refers to the apadravya, a genital piercing, whilst a similar piercing, the ampallang (a horizontally orientated apadravya), is said to have originated in Borneo and in particular is associated with the Dyak tribe (Eye of the Needle). The Carafa Indians of South America wear a thin cane in the lower lip, this denotes one being in their prime of life. In Africa similar decorations can be found worn by the women but they are stretched to huge sizes, a possible theory as to the extent the piercing is taken to is that it was used to discourage the slave trade. Modern body piercing then, consists of an amalgam of body art from ancient and present day non-industrialised societies coupled with modern hygiene and piercing techniques. This has given rise to new, and more technically difficult, piercings such as the diath and rook invented by Eric Dakota and even more extreme the piercing of the uvula. Many types of piercings possible are show in the illustrations section.


There seem to be two main schools of thought as to how modern body piercing arose, one based in America and the other in the United Kingdom. Most books attribute modern body piercing to three men, Doug Malloy and Jim Ward, in the US, and Mr Sebastian, in the UK. Their contributions to body piercing are documented in both Eye of the Needle and Modern Primitives, and document piercing's development and expansion from the gay and sadomasochistic communities in the US. In this explanation the rise of piercing in the UK is attributed to Mr Sebastian and his connections with Malloy and Ward. The other account of body piercing's development, within the UK, was given to me by Dave of Cold Steel, a professional piercer who has been involved with piercing since he was fourteen. According to Dave body piercing had always existed to some degree amongst members of certain sub-cultural groups. The major factor in launching body piercing from being rare in such groups, and as a consequence becoming more common throughout the UK, was the opening of the first shop which produced jewellery specifically for body piercing. This shop, called Wildcat, is based in Brighton and is one of, if not the, largest supplier of medical grade stainless steel body jewellery in the UK. It was the availability of purpose made, hypoallergenic jewellery available cheaply and easily that contributed to piercings rise in popularity.


Piercing in the UK was, as noted above, originally limited to a variety of fringe groups, most notably the punks, 'travellers' and members of the sadomasochistic scene. These groups are by no means the only ones which practised body piercing, nor are the names assigned to them meant to be especially descriptive, they are meant purely to give a general indication of the fringe position which body piercing held.


The sudden and marked change in the nature of body piercing occurred about three to four years ago. This change was brought about by a number of factors but most notably the uptake of navel and eyebrow piercings by the fashion world, the piercing of the eyebrow of a member of the 'boy band' Take That and the increased amount of exposure given to the fetish scene on British television. These factors had three main effects. Firstly they made piercing fashionable to the general public, secondly they opened up the realm of extreme, as opposed to fashion, body piercing to people who had never realised it was possible and thirdly, people who had been piercing their own bodies for years were made aware of the extent to which the practise was widespread.


Eyebrow Piercings
One of the most modern body piercings is the eyebrow piercing. Coming from the 'if it protrudes, pierce it' philosophy of the 1990s, the eyebrow has become rather popular, despite being a notoriously problematic piercing. This is actually a surface piercing, a placement of permanent jewelry in a part of the body that does not really have a skin fold.




An eyebrow that has a heavier 'ridge' or thickness of tissue under the brow line is better suited to support the successful healing of this piercing. A very flat brow creates tension across the pierced area and will lend the healing piercing the natural tendency to rejection. Sometimes called 'healing out,' this is when the body pushes the jewelry towards the surface of the body, as though it were attempting to push away the new jewelry. Most often, in cases of rejection, the piercing is highly irritated and painful, and some rejecting piercings show extreme and sudden reversal of negative symptoms immediately upon the removal of the jewelry. The basic idea response to this situation is, if you think your body is telling you that you should not have a certain piercing, your body is probably right and you should take it out.


Eyebrow piercings should be performed 'freehand' with a proper piercing needle by a trained body piercer, and should NEVER be pierced with ear piercing guns. Placement along the brow line varies highly from person to person and varies with brow anatomy and aesthetic preferences. How far into the facial tissue the piercing is made also varies individually, and your piercer should be consulted as to what they suggest. If you wear eye glasses or sun glasses regularly, make sure you check the placement and size of your jewelry so that it doesn't conflict physically or visually. If you are a woman who plucks or waxes her brows, be sure and have your brows done before getting a new eyebrow piercing. You do not want to be plucking stray hairs from around your fresh, tender brow ring for as long as you can after it is first pierced.


Jewelry options include tiny barbells or rings. Whichever jewelry seems to stress skin surface and angle of the new piercing less is best to start. There are small, subtle nylon 'keepers' made for wearers of eyebrow piercings who have to hide their facial piercings for jobs, families and other public situations. People who like to sleep on their faces should consider if they can change their sleep habits to facilitate healing this piercing. Eyebrow piercings can take 9 to 12 weeks to heal: consider the impact that healing this piercing will have on the next three months of your life. During the initial healing period, you will want to avoid wearing makeup or other facial products that might contaminate or irritate the fresh piercing

Ear Piercings
One of the most widely accepted body modifications found in cultures all over the planet is the pierced ear. Modern piercing techniques allow for easy piercing and more successful healing, especially for cartilage piercings. The modern primitives movement has brought the stretched ear loop to Western culture after a long low-profile existence in the South Pacific and Africa over the last few thousand years.




Ear piercing is very straightforward. A tiny hole is made through the ear tissue, usually in the fleshy lobe at the bottom of the ear. Permanent jewelry is worn in the holes, allowing the holes to heal 'open', giving the person 'pierced ears.' Modern techniques are usually either a piercing gun or a hand technique using a slant-tip needle. The hand technique is more precise and utilizes a sharper instrument which is much less traumatic to the tissue. Most modern piercings studios utilize the new sterile hand techniques, but ask how the person performing the piercing received their training and what methods they prefer and why. All tools should be sterilized and 'single-service', meaning they get used on only one person and then properly discarded.


The jewelry worn in pierced ears falls into a few categories. Stud earrings are usually tiny decorative fronts attached to short posts, held in place with a small earring back that slips onto the post. Hoop earrings are either the loops worn through the ears themselves, or any earrings the utilize such a wire as the foundation for the earrings. Hook earrings come in many shapes and styles, all based on the idea of a bent wire that hooks into the hole in the ear with some sort of dangle supported from the wire. Tiny hoops with decoration are best for newly pierced ears, as they are light and allow for ease of movement for healing and cleaning. Well-established piercings can support heavier dangles comfortably.


Ears can be pierced just about anywhere from the lower lobes to the thin rim that runs around the entire shell of the ear. Newer piercings include large gauge holes in the conch of the ear, or rings through the ridges of the conch. By slowly increasing the gauge of the ear jewelry, soft tissue piercings can be stretched to form ear loops, much like the style of the Dyak people of South Borneo.


Not all cultures encourage the pierced ear. When I was in graduate school, several Chinese classmates told me that no Chinese girl would get her ear pierced all the way around the edge like I have as they believe that there is a spot on the ear that controls all your luck. They were afraid that if they hit that spot, they would become unlucky. To pierce or not to pierce then becomes a very individual decision.

The Labret, Or Lip Piercing
One of the more unusual piercings, both in ancient and modern practice, is the labret, or lip piercing. The term 'labret' is French in origin, meaning 'lip' but it is the modern, umbrella term for all piercings around the opening of the mouth. Primitive and contemporary piercings are found in both the upper and lower lips in a variety of thicknesses and placements




In the past, the mention of a lip piercing brought to mind exotic Africa and large wooden disks. Many people probably now imagine any number of dark-clad young people with silver lip and nose rings who work at the corner store or are their own children. In essence, these two ends are achieved through nearly the same means, but in each case the person is operating under different cultural norms and treats the piercing differently during healing.


Placement of lip piercings can vary quite a bit, and often jewelry choice is related to the location and size of the piercing. Lower lip piercings can be centered or placed as desired almost anywhere along the lower lip line. Rings are frequently worn for lower lip piercings, but curved tusks, short spikes and studs can be worn if desired.


Upper lip piercings frequently are 'beauty mark' style, sometimes called a Madonna piercing, after the singer's beauty mark. A tiny barbell or stud is most often worn in upper lip piercings, to make the piercing most resemble the namesake beauty mark placement. More often the style of backing chosen for post-style jewelry becomes more important than the part that shows outside the mouth.


Non-ring labrets can come with disk backs or fishtails. Posts that end with disk backs have a small flat circle of metal that screws to the jewelry, sometimes on the disk side inside the mouth, and sometimes a barbell end that caps the post on the outside. Fishtail-finished jewelry has a wire that lies along the inside of the lip perpendicular to the piercing, staying in place using much of the same principles as the Indian nostril screw does for nose piercings. This jewelry is inserted into the piercing from the front and twists into place to fit the front shape of the mouth. Which style works best for you can only be determined through your own experience. Each style has reports of rubbing the gums too much along with responses claiming comfort and ease of wear.


The entire issue around healing labret piercings is centered on how well the piercing is placed and whether the jewelry rubs the gums inside the mouth. The number one reason people give up or remove a labret is due to the gums receding from friction with the metal jewelry. In many primitive cultures, the teeth adjacent large lip piercings are frequently knocked out, eliminating this dental conflict. It may be up to you to help educate your dentist to new issues of oral hygiene and health that relate to your piercing.


This is a piercing that should never be performed by someone who has not had training, and should never be done with a piercing gun. Good placement and sound piercing techniques can make this a long-lived and enjoyable piercing choice. Consult your piercer with any questions you have regarding care and healing, and ask them what info you can pass along to your dentist to help them be more piercing-positive.

Navel Piercings
What is it with Navel Rings?


Piercing lore has it that the Egyptian royal family had pierced belly buttons and wore gold rings in their navels, and that this was easily facilitated by the fact that they all had deep navels due to inbreeding. If that is true, then navel piercing has been around for a very long time. Even if it isn't true, there haven't been many occurrences of navel piercing in history, and it's clearly more of a modern body piercing than ear, nose or lip rings. Although highly aesthetic on many navels, this is a very difficult piercing to heal due to placement on the body.





The major physical qualification to getting your navel pierced is to have some sort of edge of extra tissue around your navel that can be clamped and pierced through. Nearly any form of any "inny" belly button will work, but some people with "outies" have enough of an edge too. You should not pierce through tissue that is protruding from inside the navel formation, only skin tissue that is around the bowl of the navel. Placement is most commonly somewhere between 11 o'clock and 1 o'clock but really any part will work if there is that definite flap of skin to go through. Comfort is best facilitated by placing the jewelry to work with the maximum depth of your belly button and how it sits as part of your overall abdomen. Trust your piercer, it's their job.


Life after your Navel is Pierced


Healing is easily six to nine months with at least 50% of people finally healing after a full year or slightly longer. Your midsection is highly active in overall body movement, the tissue is very muscular and the blood supply to the surface skin is much less than other pierced areas on the body. Clothing can easily irritate this piercing, and many people dress more loosely or have to make sure the waistbands of their clothing don't rub the jewelry. Freshly pierced belly buttons are sensitive to many kinds of soaps and even antibiotic ointments and washes. With navels, less is more for cleansing and healing. Try to clean the piercing once in the morning and once at night, and don't play with it in between.


Once healed, there are a wide variety of captured bead rings, curved barbells, dangles and belly chains to wear. Navels are happy wearing surgical steel, gold, titanium and niobium. If you do sports or any kind of highly vigorous physical activity and your jewelry is in the way, you have a few options. One is to tape the ring down with a piece of first aid tape. Or you can take out the jewelry and temporarily replace it with a loop of nylon mono filament line of the appropriate thickness.

Nipple Piercings
One search term that has been consistently popular since the inception of the Internet is 'nipple piercing.' Historically, there have been rumors of references to Roman centurions having pierced nipples to fasten their short dress capes. More recently, the repressive Victorian ladies supposedly affected nipple jewelry to make their nipples more prominent through their tight bodices. However the modern pierced nipple has grown in prominence and popularity much like the Internet where this topic leads picture and image search requests over the last decade.


Just a decade ago, the mention of a nipple piercing often produced confused and shocked looks. Nowadays, the most common reaction is a knowing 'oh..' and/or indifference. Pierced nipples are certainly not commonplace, but they have moved from the fringe underground to a secure position as part of modern pop culture. Mainstream musicians sport nipple rings openly and erotic culture publications regularly include models with fetish body modifications like nose, nipple and navel rings.





Placement of nipple piercings is most often horizontally through the areola, just behind the main bud of the nipple. Sometimes this piercing is done vertically, either as a solo piercing or paired with a horizontal piercing. Thickness of the jewelry worn in a nipple piercing should be at least 14 gauge to avoid tissue tearing. Length or diameter of the jewelry is determined by how much tissue the piercing encompasses, and starter jewelry can be either a barbell or a ring. Fixed or captured bead rings are the most popular as they are secure to wear and easy to clean.


Nipple piercings can take between three and six months to heal on average, with many women finding it can take between six months and a year for their nipple piercings to heal. Men's nipples heal faster due to differences in tissue composition and hormones. Many women experience extra issues with healing nipple piercings during their menstrual cycles. For women who are considering having children, so far there does not appear to be any interference between well-healed piercings and breast feeding, although it is not recommended to get new piercings before, during or after pregnancy due to changes of body state.


Once healed, many people with pierced nipples find the tissue more developed, with increased sensation and responsiveness. Men especially report increases in tissue thickness and tactile sensitivity. A variety of jewelry styles is available for wear in a well established piercing including curved barbells, horseshoe attachments and many variations for attaching chains and dangles.

Nipple Piercings: Healing and Aftercare
For those who choose to have their nipples pierced, healing times run between three and six months for most men, and six to twelve months for most women. This is a major piercing, considered a deep tissue wound technically. The piercing heals from the outer edges back towards the center and can often take a long time to become comfortably established. Women experience longer healing times as their piercings are often through more body tissue and their breast tissue changes with hormonal fluctuations.


Once the piercings are healed, there are many jewelry choices available for nipple piercings. Barbells can be straight or curved with many decorative end balls. Bead rings can be fixed or captured, again with many bead options and dangles available. All nipple jewelry should be at least 14 gauge thick to avoid slicing into the tissues. Breast tissue responds well to slow stretching and nipple jewelry gauge can easily be increased by enlarging with professional tapered stretching. Consult a professional piercer for recommendations for increasing jewelry diameter and thickness.


Nipple piercings are through erectile tissue. They get better blood supply than a navel piercing but are subject to more body movement and rubbing with clothing than an ear piercing. Nipple piercings can initially be tender for a few days or a few weeks depending on the individual. Increasing redness, swelling and tenderness usually signal some form of infection. Don't be afraid to contact your piercer if you think you are having a healing issue.


New jewelry should be surgical stainless steel or 14k or 18k gold. See what your piercer recommends as far as starting diameter. You cannot wear sterling silver in nipple piercings, and it is recommend to save niobium and titanium for established piercings. For washing, use a natural soap without dyes, perfumes or heavy anti-bacterials. These can all irritate the new piercing, as can over-cleaning the piercing. Some people find that soaking the fresh piercing with hot salt water is suitable. Clean any dried lymph fluids from the edges of the healing piercings for comfort.


Piercings heal from the outside in, so what your nipples are doing is growing a tunnel from the two sides of the nipple to surround the new jewelry. The surfaces can look healed whereas the inside areas might not be healed totally together, so don't rush to change into new jewelry for the first year. You will also want to avoid hot tubs or pools as the chemicals in the water can irritate and inflame healing piercings. Use laundry products without dyes or scent additives while the nipple piercings are still healing to avoid reactions.

Nose Piercings
The most common place for piercing the nose is through the curve of one of the nostrils. Placement can be anywhere along the nostril, depending on the preference of the wearer. Usually a cork is inserted into the nostril to catch the needle end, and a straight needle is simply pushed thorough. It is important for people to find reputable piercers and not allow tools like ear piercing guns to be used on body parts other than ears.


Types of Nose Piercings





Nostril piercings are healed with either a stud-style piece of jewelry or a ring. Studs are kept in place either with small backings like stud earrings or a style of stud from India called a nostril screw. The short post ends in a half circle turn, so the jewelry screws in then pops down, staying in place. This old style has become very popular again due to its comfort and security.


The next most common placement for a nose piercing is through the septum, the piece of tissue that separates the two sides of the nose. It is important to avoid the main piece of cartilage in the end of the nose and to go thorough the softer tissue. Placement should also be considered when selecting ring-style jewelry so that the initial piercing is not placed too low. Most often a small ring is worn in this piercing. A U-shaped septum retainer can be worn by those who are healing new piercings, or who have to hide their septum piercing for work or familial-business. The ends are flipped up into the nose and the tiny wire becomes unseen, but keeps the piercing open. Barbells, tusks and spike-style jewelry are crafted for this piercing, but it is better to reserve these jewelry styles for established piercings or occasional wear.


Nostril and septum piercings can take between six and twelve weeks to heal. Maintaining general health and well-being during this time can both support and speed healing. Fresh piercings should have stainless surgical steel or 14k or 18k gold jewelry in them, with sterling silver being better for an established piercing. Changing pillow cases more often during the healing period and trying to avoid sleeping on the piercing are also advised.

Nose Piercings: Healing and Aftercare
One of the most common 'old World' piercings to become popular in the Western world is the nose piercing. Most often, this is a piercing made somewhere along the curve of the nostril rim on either the left or right side as the wearer chooses. Nose piercings can take from between six and twelve weeks to heal. Many people debate whether a stud or a ring is the best jewelry, and you will find wearers split in their preferences.


Jewelry Choices for New Nose Piercings


Jewelry choice can also change depending on the age of the piercing. Most favor a ring for the initial piercing. Because the jewelry is thin and can be turned or moved in the piercing, it favors easy cleaning and allows extra room in case of slight swelling at the outset. Studs can be worn in new piercings but should be carefully fitted so as to not be too short or tight to the skin. Many new piercings show some signs of being swollen and reddened in the immediate area of the piercing, usually for first few days or so.


Healing - What to Expect


Nose piercings are through cartilage-heavy tissues. They are less flexible and have less blood supply than areas composed of softer tissue, like the lower ear lobe. Whereas a new ear piercing might 'settle down' in a week, some people find their new nostril piercings still look 'angry' and a bit red for a week or sometimes two after. Increasing redness, swelling and tenderness usually signal some form of infection. Don't be afraid to contact your piercer if you think you are having a healing issue.


Aftercare and Changing Jewelry


New jewelry should be surgical stainless steel or 14k or 18k gold. If you know that you tolerate niobium or titanium well, you might start with that. See what you piercer recommends. Sterling silver is better saved for established piercings that don't get irritated by the high rate of tarnish. For washing around the piercing, use a natural soap without dyes, perfumes or heavy anti-bacterials. These can all irritate the new piercing, as can over-cleaning the piercing. You will want to rinse the piercing with something like Bactine once a day, or apply a light dab of triple antibiotic ointment (if you are not allergic to it) to keep the ring lubricated and moving freely.


Piercings heal from the outside in, so what your nose is doing is growing a tunnel from the two sides of your nostril to surround the new jewelry. The surfaces can look healed whereas the inside areas might not be healed totally together, so don't rush to change into new jewelry for the first two months or so. Once healed, some people switch the ring to a stud, or switch to a smaller snugger ring than what they started with. A popular jewelry style is the nostril screw, an Indian-style where the short post ends in a half curl to hold it in place. Some people even find they can wear a conventional earring style post in their nostril and it will stay in place without a backing. This will depend on how 'tight' your piercing and the jewelry fit. Beware, you can loose backless studs when you sneeze!

Tongue Piercings


Many facial piercings are more contemporary in nature, and the tongue piercing fall into this category as well. You don't see this piercing in tribal cultures, you see it being worn by middle-class American college students, rock musicians and porn stars. For some people this is an easy piercing and for others it can be difficult. It takes a bit of forethought to have a comfortable tongue piercing.


Placement
Tongues are primarily pierced down the center, somewhere in mid-tongue, with a barbell being the primary style of jewelry worn in this piercing. What you wind up with is a small ball on the top and bottom of the tongue with the bar connecting them vertically through the middle of the tissue. Tongues are muscular and a lot of people say that biting your tongue accidentally with your teeth is more painful than piercing with a needle.


One very important factor to consider when getting your tongue pierced is the alignment of the jewelry and your teeth. The piercing should be set back far enough on the tongue to not be in constant contact with the backs of the teeth. Friction of the steel jewelry over time has been known to wear off enamel, and tongue piercees who like to 'picket fence' their jewelry along the insides of their teeth will soon get reports of chipping and major damage from their dentists. Plastic balls on the ends of the barbells can greatly reduce chipping. Too far forward and your speech will be affected, the jewelry colliding with the teeth as the tongue makes certain vocal shapes in the front of the mouth.


Afterwards
One of the biggest factors for success is oral hygiene and healing routine. Your mouth has to be as healthy as it can and you have to be ready to take care of the piercing rather strictly for four to six weeks. The first week you have to be prepared to have your speech affected and to have eating border on hellish. Tongues swell up after piercing and you have to be ready to deal with this.


Healing is best if you plan for a starter piece of jewelry that is at least 1/4' longer than your tongue is thick. Talk with your body piercer about this. You will want to wear this barbell for the first two weeks or so until the swelling goes down in your tongue, then switch to a size that is more appropriate for not interfering with talking and eating over the long term. You will need to gargle several times a day in order to cleanse the piercing and your piercer will recommend which oral hygiene products to use. Sucking on ice is a basic way to help with swelling, but watch out as the barbell will get colder than the rest of the inside of your mouth.

Specific health hazards
One type of piercing - in the tongue - has raised the ire of the American Dental Association (ADA). Last year, the ADA roundly criticized oral piercings, including those on lips, cheeks, and particularly the tongue.


"Bottom line is, don't do it," says Dr. Richard H. Price, a practicing dentist in Newton, Massachusetts, and a spokesperson for the ADA. Price says one young woman created a space between her front teeth by driving her barbell between them; he had to fix another college student's cracked molar after the student bit on his tongue barbell while snacking on a bagel. The ADA also links piercings to speech impediments; tongue swelling that can impede breathing, gingival injury or recession; and accidental swallowing of jewelry.


A recent study of 52 young adults with tongue piercings found that negative effects can crop up in as little as two years. About half of the people studied experienced receding gums after two years, and almost half had chipped back teeth after four years of wearing a 5/8 inch tongue barbell.


Tight clothing often irritates new piercings, especially those on nipples, navels, and genitals. Nipple piercings in a woman might eventually cause her milk ducts to close if not done correctly, Armstrong says, although she says there has not been enough research in this area. "There's nothing written about nipple piercing," she says. "And if there's [little] written about nipple piercing, there's virtually nothing written about genital piercing."


Healing times vary depending on the individual, and that's certainly true of genital piercings. For a woman who has pierced her clitoris or labia, it could take one to four months for the piercing to stop oozing, Muldoon says. For men who get their scrotums or penises pierced, it could take between one and eight months. Genital piercings don't tend to become terribly infected, says Kelley Muldoon, a nurse practitioner in Connecticut, but they can increase your risk of transmitting sexually transmitted diseases while they're healing.


"You've got to be careful that no body fluids, oral or genital, get to any piercings because the healing times vary so much you increase the risk of transmission," she says. If you have a genital piercing, she says, be sure to use condoms or dental dams when having sex until the piercing is healed.


Muldoon even recommends wearing two condoms - "double bagging it" - when you're having sex during the healing process or whenever there seems to be an infection because the risk is so great with an open wound. One additional concern with the penis being pierced, Armstrong adds, is that the urinal stream can be diverted, forcing some men to sit on the toilet to urinate to contain the spray.


Armstrong has found that the navel is prone to bacterial infection. One study she conducted on college students found that 45 percent of people with belly-button piercings had navel infections. "The area is dark, moist, and has fuzzies," she says, all of which can lead to minor infections. In addition, piercings in areas like the navel and eyebrows can lead to rejection of the jewelry if it is inserted too shallowly.


Finally, any area that has cartilage should be avoided, experts say. Cartilage, the soft bone tissue in your ears and nose, has a poor supply of blood, which aids in healing, so such piercings are more susceptible to infections and scarring.

The Hazards Of Body Piercing
Venerable organizations--American Academy of Dermatology, American Dental Association--frown upon the popular practice of piercing. And the American Medical Association goes as far as considering some forms of body piercing, as illegal surgery.


There are some potentially harmful results if associated with body piercing. Here are some things to keep in mind before you pierce your tongue, eyebrow, belly button, lip, nipple, genital or navel:


Infection


The mouth contains an abundance of bacteria and introducing a foreign body into the environment can lead to serious infection. In addition, piercing with infected needles can lead to HIV exposure, tetanus and hepatitis.


Dental Damage


Tongue studs and rings are hard, and have led to chipped and cracked teeth. They can also cause potential choking hazards if the jewelry ring becomes loose and is swallowed. Loss of taste buds and numbness may occur if a nerve is accidentally pierced. Excessive drooling and speech impediments are minor, but are common problems with tongue rings.


Keloids


Keloids are a type of scarring seen in areas of skin trauma that is prevalent among those with African or Asian descent. If you are prevalent to developing keloids you may want to think twice before piercing, as it could result in a cosmetically unappealing scar.


Diabetics and Hemophiliacs


Diabetes and hemophiliacs should also reconsider having piercing done. Diabetics can have poor wound healing and hemophiliacs may have prolonged bleeding which could be life threatening. People with nickel allergies also want to stay away from piercing.


Lack of Health Standards


One problem with the body piercing industry is that it is unregulated. There are only ten states that regulate the practice of body piercing, and often vary widely in how strictly the regulations are enforced. Although some body piercers have formed organizations hoping to raise health standards, there are many fly-by-night operations still out there trying to make a quick buck.


Prior to Entering a Shop


Make sure the establishment where you are going to have the piercing done, has an autoclave machine present, which sterilizes surgical instruments. The piercers should wear gloves and so should anyone involved in the process. Needles should be disposable.


Whether it be a signature of Y2K rebellion or an adolescent dare, it is important to think of the consequences before subjecting yourself to body art. Your health may depend on it.

Nipple Piercing Led to Lactation
Doctors in Boston report that a young woman began producing milk, apparently because her nipple rings stimulated her breasts into thinking she was nursing.




This is believed to be the first time that anyone has reported a connection between body piercing and lactation.




"I suppose women should realize that this is a possibility," says Dr. Geoffrey Modest, a family practice doctor and clinical professor at the Boston University School of Medicine. "If they start lactating, they probably should see a physician just to check it out."




Modest and a colleague wrote about the case in a letter to the editor in yesterday's issue of The New England Journal of Medicine (news - web sites).




According to their report, a 20-year-old woman went for medical care three weeks after getting her nipples pierced because she was experiencing pain and discharge. She later returned because both breasts were producing milk even though she wasn't pregnant.




Tests showed her body was producing very high levels of prolactin, a hormone associated with milk production, Modest says. While the level itself was not unhealthy, it can often signal a breast tumor in a woman who isn't pregnant, he says.




In this case, it appeared the nipple rings -- along with an infection -- stimulated the breasts into producing milk. The woman, who later became pregnant and had an abortion, recovered after the rings were removed.




The Boston University doctors' explanation of the woman's case makes sense, says Dr. Lester B. Mayers, sports medicine director at Pace University in New York, who has studied body piercing.




"There's a complicated reflex that goes on with nursing and lactation," he says. "Lactation is stimulated by sucking, so the nipples obviously have receptors. One could visualize that if it's in the right tissue in the breast, the mechanical stimulation caused by a piercing could activate that reflex."




Last year, in apparently the first study of its kind, Mayers and colleagues surveyed 454 Pace students about their body piercings. Sixty percent of female students reported piercings in body parts other than their ears, including nipples, belly buttons and tongues.


Of the male students, 42 percent had piercings of some type.


The study also found that a large percentage -- 17 percent -- reported infections as a result of their piercings. However, the medical problems were usually not serious.


Cleanliness is the main problem, Mayers says, especially for navel piercings. "If you have an open wound which heals slowly, and a bacteriologically dirty spot, it's very logical that that would become infected," he says.


Nipples don't appear to be an especially risky spot for infections, but they probably pose more problems than earlobes, Mayers says.


The Pace study found that 5 percent of the women had nipple piercings, as did 1 percent of the men. Twenty percent of those with nipple piercings reported medical problems, typically bleeding.


People with new piercings should wash the area two or three times a day with antibacterial soap, Mayers says. Peroxide and alcohol should not be used because they will only irritate the area, he says.


Kaynak: hobby.rin.ru
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Okunmamış 08-01-2012, 08:09 PM   #2
Kalemder
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merhaba,

İngilizce olmasaydı daha iyidi ama anladığımı söyleyeyim çok eski tarihe dayanan birşey, ve diyorki çok kişi bunun yüzünden hastalanmıştır. yani bu yazıdan çıkartıcağımız ders işi profesyonellere bırakılmalı evinizde denemeyiniz.. bunu yapanlar var ama yaşadıkları sorunları hiç söylemiyorlar sadece artistlik olsun diye yapıyorlar.


LÜTFEN EVDE DENEMEYİN KENDİNİZE ZARAR VERMEYİN.. SONUÇLARI ÇOK AĞIRDIR...
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